CompTIA Security Certification
Question No: 621 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following would a security administrator implement in order to identify a problem between two systems that are not communicating properly?
Answer: A Explanation:
A Protocol Analyzer is a hardware device or more commonly a software program used to capture network data communications sent between devices on a network. Capturing and analyzing the packets sent from two systems that are not communicating properly could help determine the cause of the issue.
Well known software protocol analyzers include Message Analyzer (formerly Network Monitor) from Microsoft and Wireshark (formerly Ethereal).
Question No: 622 – (Topic 3)
The security administrator is observing unusual network behavior from a workstation. The workstation is communicating with a known malicious destination over an encrypted tunnel. A full antivirus scan, with an updated antivirus definition file, does not show any signs of infection.
Which of the following has happened on the workstation?
Known malware infection
Answer: A Explanation:
The vulnerability was unknown in that the full antivirus scan did not detect it. This is zero day vulnerability.
A zero day vulnerability refers to a hole in software that is unknown to the vendor. This security hole is then exploited by hackers before the vendor becomes aware and hurries to fix it-this exploit is called a zero day attack. Uses of zero day attacks can include infiltrating malware, spyware or allowing unwanted access to user information. The term “zero day” refers to the unknown nature of the hole to those outside of the hackers, specifically, the developers. Once the vulnerability becomes known, a race begins for the developer, who must protect users.
Question No: 623 – (Topic 3)
An administrator is instructed to disable IP-directed broadcasts on all routers in an
organization. Which of the following attacks does this prevent?
Answer: B Explanation:
A smurf attack is a type of network security breach in which a network connected to the Internet is swamped with replies to ICMP echo (PING) requests. A smurf attacker sends PING requests to an Internet broadcast address. These are special addresses that broadcast all received messages to the hosts connected to the subnet. Each broadcast address can support up to 255 hosts, so a single PING request can be multiplied 255 times. The return address of the request itself is spoofed to be the address of the attacker#39;s victim. All the hosts receiving the PING request reply to this victim#39;s address instead of the real sender#39;s address. A single attacker sending hundreds or thousands of these PING messages per second can fill the victim#39;s Internet connection with ping replies, bringing their entire Internet service to its knees. Smurfing falls under the general category of Denial of Service attacks – security attacks that don#39;t try to steal information, but instead attempt to disable a computer or network.
By disabling IP-directed broadcasts on all routers, we can prevent the smurf attack by blocking the ping requests to broadcast addresses.
Question No: 624 DRAG DROP – (Topic 3)
Determine the types of attacks below by selecting an option from the dropdown list. Determine the types of Attacks from right to specific action.
A: Phishing is the act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
Phishing email will direct the user to visit a website where they are asked to update personal information, such as a password, credit card, social security, or bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The website, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the information the user enters on the page.
B: Whaling is a specific kind of malicious hacking within the more general category of phishing, which involves hunting for data that can be used by the hacker. In general, phishing efforts are focused on collecting personal data about users. In whaling, the targets are high-ranking bankers, executives or others in powerful positions or job titles.
Hackers who engage in whaling often describe these efforts as quot;reeling in a big fish,quot; applying a familiar metaphor to the process of scouring technologies for loopholes and opportunities for data theft. Those who are engaged in whaling may, for example, hack into specific networks where these powerful individuals work or store sensitive data. They may also set up keylogging or other malware on a work station associated with one of these executives. There are many ways that hackers can pursue whaling, leading C-level or top- level executives in business and government to stay vigilant about the possibility of cyber threats.
C: Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The scammer usually pretends to be a legitimate business, and fools the victim into thinking he or she will profit.
D: SPIM is a term sometimes used to refer to spam over IM (Instant Messaging). It’s also called just spam, instant spam, or IM marketing. No matter what the name, it consists of unwanted messages transmitted through some form of instant messaging service, which can include Short Message Service (SMS).
E: Social engineering is a non-technical method of intrusion hackers use that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves tricking people into breaking normal security procedures. It is one of the greatest threats that organizations today encounter.
A social engineer runs what used to be called a quot;con game.quot; For example, a person using social engineering to break into a computer network might try to gain the confidence of an authorized user and get them to reveal information that compromises the network#39;s security. Social engineers often rely on the natural helpfulness of people as well as on their weaknesses. They might, for example, call the authorized employee with some kind of urgent problem that requires immediate network access. Appealing to vanity, appealing to
authority, appealing to greed, and old-fashioned eavesdropping are other typical social engineering techniques.
Question No: 625 – (Topic 3)
Failure to validate the size of a variable before writing it to memory could result in which of the following application attacks?
Answer: D Explanation:
A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information – which has to go somewhere – can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them.
Although it may occur accidentally through programming error, buffer overflow is an increasingly common type of security attack on data integrity. In buffer overflow attacks, the extra data may contain codes designed to trigger specific actions, in effect sending new instructions to the attacked computer that could, for example, damage the user#39;s files, change data, or disclose confidential information.
Validating the size of a variable before writing it to memory will ensure that the variable can fit into the buffer. Failure to validate the size of a variable before writing it to memory can result in a buffer overflow.
Question No: 626 – (Topic 3)
A security technician at a small business is worried about the Layer 2 switches in the network suffering from a DoS style attack caused by staff incorrectly cabling network connections between switches.
Which of the following will BEST mitigate the risk if implemented on the switches?
Access control lists
Answer: A Explanation:
Spanning Tree is designed to eliminate network ‘loops’ from incorrect cabling between switches. Imagine two switches named switch 1 and switch 2 with two network cables connecting the switches. This would cause a network loop. A network loop between two switches can cause a ‘broadcast storm’ where a broadcast packet is sent out of all ports on switch 1 which includes two links to switch 2. The broadcast packet is then sent out of all ports on switch 2 which includes links back to switch 1. The broadcast packet will be sent out of all ports on switch 1 again which includes two links to switch 2 and so on thus flooding the network with broadcast traffic.
The Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) was created to overcome the problems of transparent bridging in redundant networks. The purpose of STP is to avoid and eliminate loops in the network by negotiating a loop-free path through a root bridge. This is done by determining where there are loops in the network and blocking links that are redundant.
Spanning-Tree Protocol executes an algorithm called the Spanning-Tree Algorithm (STA). In order to find redundant links, STA will choose a reference point called a Root Bridge, and then determines all the available paths to that reference point. If it finds a redundant path, it chooses for the best path to forward and for all other redundant paths to block. This effectively severs the redundant links within the network.
All switches participating in STP gather information on other switches in the network through an exchange of data messages. These messages are referred to as Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). The exchange of BPDUs in a switched environment will result in the election of a root switch for the stable spanning-tree network topology, election of designated switch for every switched segment, and the removal of loops in the switched network by placing redundant switch ports in a backup state.
Question No: 627 – (Topic 3)
After a recent breach, the security administrator performs a wireless survey of the corporate network. The security administrator notices a problem with the following output:
MACSSIDENCRYPTIONPOWERBEACONS 00:10:A1:36:12:CCMYCORPWPA2 CCMP601202
00:10:A1:49:FC:37MYCORPWPA2 CCMP709102 FB:90:11:42:FA:99MYCORPWPA2 CCMP403031 00:10:A1:AA:BB:CCMYCORPWPA2 CCMP552021
Given that the corporate wireless network has been standardized, which of the following attacks is underway?
Answer: A Explanation:
The question states that the corporate wireless network has been standardized. By ‘standardized’ it means the wireless network access points are running on hardware from the same vendor. We can see this from the MAC addresses used. The first half of a MAC address is vendor specific. The second half is network adapter specific. We have four devices with MAC addresses that start with 00:10:A1.
The “odd one out” is the device with a MAC address starting FB:90:11. This device is from a different vendor. The SSID of the wireless network on this access point is the same as the other legitimate access points. Therefore, the access point with a MAC address starting FB:90:11 is impersonating the corporate access points. This is known as an Evil Twin.
An evil twin, in the context of network security, is a rogue or fake wireless access point (WAP) that appears as a genuine hotspot offered by a legitimate provider.
In an evil twin attack, an eavesdropper or hacker fraudulently creates this rogue hotspot to collect the personal data of unsuspecting users. Sensitive data can be stolen by spying on a connection or using a phishing technique.
For example, a hacker using an evil twin exploit may be positioned near an authentic Wi-Fi access point and discover the service set identifier (SSID) and frequency. The hacker may then send a radio signal using the exact same frequency and SSID. To end users, the
rogue evil twin appears as their legitimate hotspot with the same name.
In wireless transmissions, evil twins are not a new phenomenon. Historically, they were known as honeypots or base station clones. With the advancement of wireless technology and the use of wireless devices in public areas, it is very easy for novice users to set up evil twin exploits.
Question No: 628 – (Topic 3)
Jane, a security analyst, is reviewing logs from hosts across the Internet which her company uses to gather data on new malware. Which of the following is being implemented by Jane’s company?
Answer: B Explanation:
The Internet hosts used to gather data on new malware are known as honeypots. A collection of honeypots is known as a honeynet.
A honeynet is a network set up with intentional vulnerabilities; its purpose is to invite attack, so that an attacker#39;s activities and methods can be studied and that information used to increase network security. A honeynet contains one or more honey pots, which are computer systems on the Internet expressly set up to attract and quot;trapquot; people who attempt to penetrate other people#39;s computer systems. Although the primary purpose of a honeynet is to gather information about attackers#39; methods and motives, the decoy network can benefit its operator in other ways, for example by diverting attackers from a real network and its resources. The Honeynet Project, a non-profit research organization dedicated to computer security and information sharing, actively promotes the deployment of honeynets. In addition to the honey pots, a honeynet usually has real applications and services so that it seems like a normal network and a worthwhile target. However, because the honeynet doesn#39;t actually serve any authorized users, any attempt to contact the network from without is likely an illicit attempt to breach its security, and any outbound activity is likely evidence that a system has been compromised. For this reason, the suspect information is much more apparent than it would be in an actual network, where it would have to be found amidst all the legitimate network data. Applications within a honeynet are often given names such as quot;Financesquot; or quot;Human Servicesquot; to make them sound appealing to the
A virtual honeynet is one that, while appearing to be an entire network, resides on a single server.
Question No: 629 – (Topic 3)
An attacker attempted to compromise a web form by inserting the following input into the username field: admin)(|(password=*))
Which of the following types of attacks was attempted?
Answer: D Explanation:
LDAP Injection is an attack used to exploit web based applications that construct LDAP statements based on user input. When an application fails to properly sanitize user input, it’s possible to modify LDAP statements using a local proxy. This could result in the execution of arbitrary commands such as granting permissions to unauthorized queries, and content modification inside the LDAP tree. The same advanced exploitation techniques available in SQL Injection can be similarly applied in LDAP Injection.
In a page with a user search form, the following code is responsible to catch input value and generate a LDAP query that will be used in LDAP database.
lt;input type=quot;textquot; size=20 name=quot;userNamequot;gt;Insert the usernamelt;/inputgt;
The LDAP query is narrowed down for performance and the underlying code for this function might be the following:
String ldapSearchQuery = quot;(cn=quot; $userName quot;)quot;; System.out.println(ldapSearchQuery);
If the variable $userName is not validated, it could be possible accomplish LDAP injection, as follows:
If a user puts “*” on box search, the system may return all the usernames on the LDAP base
If a user puts “jonys) (| (password = * ) )”, it will generate the code bellow revealing jonys’
password ( cn = jonys ) ( | (password = * ) )
Question No: 630 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following is BEST utilized to identify common misconfigurations throughout the enterprise?
Answer: A Explanation:
A vulnerability scan is the process of scanning the network and/or I.T. infrastructure for threats and vulnerabilities. The threats and vulnerabilities are then evaluated in a risk assessment and the necessary actions taken to resolve and vulnerabilities. A vulnerability scan scans for known weaknesses such as missing patches or security updates.
A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.
Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security.
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